Zeynep Nur AYDIN KILIÇ
CONCEPT OF VALUE
People are the output of the society in which they live beside being a biological organism. People are born in groups and gain their social properties in these groups. The valid information through these groups in society, the values are transferred to the individual. Persons gain their culture through learning in the process of socialization. The majoity of human behaviors are learned behaviors. People learn the valid values, rules and norms, attitudes, habits and skills in society through the relationships with others (İçli, 2005; 117).
The individuals adapt depending on the natural and social conditions of the society in which they were born and grown, and gain an personality appropriate for their own society. Even though people adopt the norms and values of the society, all members of a society are not identical. Members of a society gain various personalities in some aspects but also may gain similar personalities (Ulusoy& Dilmaç, 2012; 11).
Value is the desired one or something that may be desired and the human attitude related to the events. Values are measurements that lead a way to our aspects, ideal behaviors or beliefs about the purpose of life. In other words, value is the importance or superiority that is recognized as individually or socially for an object, entity or activity (Aydın &Akyol- Gürler; 2013; 2).
The values are high level structures that shapeour behaviors independent of the current situation or condition (Schwartz, 2012).
According to Durkheim (1897, 1964) and Weber (1905, 1958), values have a crucial role in explaining changes, social and personal organization. Values play an important role in sociology, psychology, anthrolopology and in other related disciplines. Values are used in qualifying cultural group, community and people and change over time and in explaining the motivational basics of attitudes and behaviors (Schwartz, 2012; 3). Values take place in the center of motivational elements in the formation of personalityin terms of psychology. Psychologists define the values as behavioral preferences of individuals that are acquired through the developmental processes at the early ages (Sağnak, 2004). From a sociological perspective, values are considered as continuous normative judgments adopted by all members of society as an ideal. According to this approach, values are the basic norms (Turan & Aktan, 2008).
Values are an ideal guiding that provides the formation of people's behavior and decisions. In this way, the right and wrong can be distinguished. Values provide a framework on how to steer the life to the individual. However, it is known that the people that have antisocial behaviors are devoid of many values. In this context, teaching values to the children provides effective strategies that will provide them to orient themselves to the correct behaviors, thus they have a successful and happy life (Koutsouikis, 2009).
After the properties of the concept of value, functions are thought to be necessarily known. According to Fichter (1990), these functions are listed as follows;
1- Values provide individuals to be aware of where they are in the eyes of other people.
2- Attention of individuals are required and it is used to draw the attention to useful and important material culture objects and it is also used in prediction of others behaviors. Consequently, they give purpose and direction to the individual.
3- The values that show the schedule of behaviors that are socially acceptable also show the ways of ideal thinking and behaving in society. This offers an idea to the individuals how they could show their behaviors and ideas in a best way.
4- Values provide guidance to the individuals to choose social roles and give an idea about how they could realize it.
5- They serve as means of social control and repression. This directs individuals to behave according to customs and traditions and also urges them to avoid from doing the disapproved behaviors and directs them to do right things. It specifies the prohibited behaviors. They help to overcome some emotions such as feeling ashamed or guilty because of the violation of these rules.
6- Values are the functions that are as means of solidarity among people with same values and provide groups to engage in collective action. In this sense, values contribute to the integration of society (Özensel, 2003:231-232; Akıncı, 2013).
CLASSIFICATION OF VALUE, THEORIES
Values can be called as time, culture and space as social some factors differ according to create, but overall, the value of "honesty, compassion, others are not aware of, responsibility, helpfulness, respect, self-control, independence, self-confidence, love, be cheerful, courtesy, creativity, perseverance, consistency and courage as "intercultural universal-joint and core(Act. Alisinanoğlu &Özbey, 2011: 21).
According to Uyanık Balat and Balaban Dağal (2011), the core values consist of three parts as ''moral knowledge'', '' moral feeling'' and ''moral behaviors''. Moral knowledge; owned by individuals who value what it means to him and others know, moral feeling; people have acted in accordance with the values exhibited behavior contrary to these values knowing the possible consequences, the moral behavior of ownership is reflected in the behavior and it can be described as value.
Different value classifications are available in the literature regarding the values. The most widely accepted ones are the classifications of Schwartz, Rokeach, Nelson, Spranger, Allport, Vernon ve Lindzey ve Graves. These classifications are described below. Schwartz (1992) defined the concept of value as '' the cognitive representatives used in order to organize the needs about social institutions or social integrations and biological needs and in order to organize behaviors of individuals'' (Demirhan İşcan & Senemoğlu, 2009:2). Schwartz valueshave been conceptualized as cognitive representations of three universal needs as '' biological needs, social interactions with regulatory requirements and group needs related to the social requirements''. Individuals explain their behaviors through using these cognitive representations (values) and justify them.
Based on these needs, Schwartz (2006) hasspeculated ten value types that are related to eachother and consistof two main dimension as ''vertical'' and ''horizontal''. The value types in horizontal dimension are called as security, compliance and tradition and the essence of orientation and being warned are called as ''innovation gap''. In vertical dimension, the value types of universalism and benevolence are called as '' self enhancement '' and the power and success are called as ''self expansion'' (Aslan, 2011: 7).
According to Schwartz (2012), values have six basic function. These basic values' frame can be summarized as follows:
- Values are beliefs. But they can not be thought without emotions. For example, when an individual's independence is endangered, he may despair that has the value of independence-freedom and when he gains his independence, he becomes pleased.
- Values are desirable objectives. Individuals that are aware of social order, justice and solidarity is important, they strive to achieve their goals.
- Values have a motivational structure, it is a tool that makes people reach their goals.
- Values is a guidance in evaluation and selection of people, events, actions and policies. Hence, the values may be mentioned as the standart and criteria also.
- Values are ranked as being associated with each other's importance. People's values create a value system priority that makes them as individuals. This hierarchical feature of values seperates them from norms and attitudes.
- Multiple values' importance levels change guide to the behaviors. Any attitude and behavior that is disclosed may imply more than a certain value (Schwartz, 2012). According to Schwartz (2006), values are sorted as follows:
Figure 1: Dynamic Underpinnings of the Universal Value Structure (Schwartz, 2012).
As it is seen from Figure 1, universal values are categorized as self-development, openness to change, conservation and self-transcendence. Values and descriptions in specified categories are as follows:
Description of Value
Social status, establishing dominance on people and resources.
Personal success which are determined by social standards.
Searching for bodily pleasures and sensory satisfaction.
Excitement and novelty seeking.
Tendency to think and act independently
Protection of understanding, tolerance, well being of people and nature for all the people.
Protection and strengthening the well being of people that are close for individual
Respect and loyalty to cultural and religious practices and understandings
Restriction of impulses and behaviors that are against societal expectations or things that could cause harm
Seeking for security and stability for self, society and relations (Demirutku and Sümer, 2010: 18).
Rokeach (1973)'s categorization about the values has used the ''purpose values (terminal)'' and '' instrument values (instrumental)'' concepts. While purpose values define the basic values of life, instrumental values are the behavior types used in reaching purpose values. Rokeach value of each value in the classification of value belonging to the group of eighteen, thirty-six in total value are located. Purpose values can be explained as serving values for life and specifying the purpose of life. These are, freedom, happiness, family security, a world of peace, to be successful, wisdom, religious maturity, equality, true friendship, beauty world, an exciting life, inner peace, self-respect, a comfortable life, social acceptance, national security, pleasure.
He states that any increase or decrease occuring in social value of an individual will also lead to increase or decrease of the other social values. Smilarly, if there is an increase or decrease in individual value of an individual, this will also lead to increase or decrease of the other individual values.And the instrumental values are the values used in reaching purpose values. These are being; independent, forgiving, brave, honest, intellectual, broad minded, ambitious, obedient, self controlled, polite, self possesed, logical, cheerful, affectionate, responsible, clean, helpful, and creative.Rokeach (1973) also divided instrumental values in two parts as "moral and competence”.
Moral values are related to behavior types rather than the purpose of life. Especially, it includes the social dimension that is considered as bad and wrong behavior. The proficiency values are individual rather than being social. Another name is Nelson who brought a classification related to the values (Aydın &Akyol Gürler: 2012: 12).
Spranger (1928) argued that values are classified specially as ''social, political, economic, religious, theoretical and aesthetic''. The definition of these values was made by Hergenhahn in 1981 (Akıncı, 2013). These definitions are as follows:
Value: Description of the value
Social: Interpersonal relationships
Political: Power and control
Economic: The practical application of knowledge
Religious: Unity and harmony
Theoretical: To investigate the right one
Aesthetic: Artistic tendencies
Scientific value gives importance to research the fact. It gives an importance to reasoning and critical thinking. People who have scientific values are experimental, critical, rational and intellectual. Economic values include financial objectives and tools. It gives an importance to useful and practical. It indicates that economic values should be heeded in life. Aesthetic value includes experiences, preferences and acceptances. Symmetry gives an importance to harmony and form. Individuals seethe life as a variety of events andthink that art is for society’s sake. Social value includes social and individual relationships and orientation in these relationships. It is essential to love others, to help and not to be selfish. The highest value is human love. This offers human love to people. It is kind and sympathetic, it is not selfish. It includes values such as political value, competency, leadership. There are personal power, influence and fame above all. It is mainly related to force. Religious value includes values of general beliefs about the world, the universe. It grasps the universe as a whole and binds itself to its integrity. It sacrifice worldly pleasures for the sake of religious (Puente, Awkard, Tesh & Southard, 1986: 880).
According to Allport, Vernon and Lindzey (1960), values have six dimensions as ''aesthetic, theoretical, economic, political, social and religious''. An individual gives an importance to these values at different levels and this constitutes his lifestyle. These values can be explained in the following way (Öztürk Samur, 2011: 28):
Aesthetic values; consist of aesthetic features which are put by an individual to an object or an event. The concepts of ''beauty, elegance, harmony and symmetry'' are adopted by individuals that have high aesthetic value.
Theoretical Values; Individuals observation, analysis and using the knowledge gained as a result of a number of rational techniques of creating its own system of values; is a dimension of the value where "Judgment, criticism and rational thought" is important.
Economic values; the priority of individuals who have adopted this value dimension is ;'' to have wealth and to be higher than others''. Utilitarianism and practical attitude are on the foreground. In other words, it means providing interest in the material sense.
Political values; it is a value dimension that is adopted by individuals who have outweighted feeling about using the power on others.
Social values are the values that are espoused by individuals who have a gentle, sympathetic and dedication value. Love is defined as a concept that is the most significant and life-shaping concept and it is a value area that is aimed to establish close relationships and intended love.
Religious Values are the systems of beliefs that consist of holy and moral concepts, adopted in order to understand the universe. The significant part of this value area consists of understanding and describing the universe integrity.
Graves (1965,1970) showed that people have the values and lifestyles of the "existential" approach tackles and he has illustrated this in a hierarchical format. According to Graves (1965.1970), on each system, the hierarchical status of each success is a state of equilibrium. Individuals who reach a state of equilibrium have a higher level of the hierarchy to pass. Belonging to a state of balance, mood, motivation, values, thoughts and preferences are this kind of values. Over an individual's experience to the next level to adapt to the new level stage, the individual adapt to new situations and provide new values to get. Graves (1965, 1970) has defined the levels as follows;
Level 1: Reactive Existence. Basic physiological needs of the people they work with, the level is correct. Values are determined by this level of response.
Level 2: Traditional Existence. This level is due to people simply need to be there.To keep up with the lifestyle of earlier generations, the objective is to resume.This level of value "a relative safety requirement" is emerging.
Level 3: Being egoist: Being a human phenomenon determines this level. An individual becomes aware of his own self. Due having high exert pressure on others and having individual motivation, values use the environment to serve this purpose. Thus, the values that belong to this level occur.
Level 4: Selfless Existence: It comes to direct to the values that are given by theGod and the feeling about existence of the life after death and pain is predominant.
Level 5: Materialist Existence: It is a level that provides a materialistic lifestyle and values come to the fore and where the feeling of exploring the boundaries of the world and managing the world is predominant.
Level 6: Social Existence: By the emergence of human values rather than rational values at this level, it becomes important in other people and society as a whole is considered valuable. ''Flexibility, pleasure, prestige and personality'' are the values that are considered important. In this level, the society is a value in itself as a whole.
Level 7: Existence: The basis of the value system is based on knowledge and reality about the universe. In this level, people are self-confident and give an importance to the life, independence and the interests of the society. '' Tolerance'' is shown to the different values and there is an opposition to inflexible systems and unnecessary use of authority (Cited: Akıncı,2013).
VALUE EDUCATION IN PRESCHOOL PERIOD AND THE VALUES THAT SHOULD BE ADDRESSED IN THIS PERIOD
The preschool years in which the foundations of many developments of human life are laid, is a critical period in which children start to acquire basic knowledge related to the values which is a part of moral development of children. When the effect of the basic knowledge and talents acquired in these years on socialization of the individual in the following years is considered, the importance of acquiring values in early ages is seen.First, the family atmosphere started to be gained in value over time; media, friends, teachers, society, and it continues to evolve under the influence of similar elements (Halstead & Taylor, 2000:169). Accoding to Bennett, Finn and Cribb (1999), one of the main points in value education is the feeling of ''trust'' that the child feels against himself. Giving responsibilities to the children that are appropriate and can be accomplished increases their self-confidence and this provides the development of these skills ( Uyanık Balat & Balaban Dağal, 2011: 17). The pre-school period when the basis of values are taken is important for the child to observe and adapt the certain values through positive models. Social life, an integral part of the value of having first details regarding the foundations of the pre-school period, academic skills training as well as social values , education also should be emphasized (Uyanık Balat &Balaban Dağal, 2011: 16).
Indeed, according to Uyanık Balat and Balaban Dağal (2011), '' in a quality preschool education program, social values as well as academic values should also be included''. Piaget and Inhelder (1969) indicatethat children's attitudes and values are compatible with the thinking process (0-7 age: moral reality, 7-8: autonomous moral). The activities such as listening a story made for someone else, reading books, listening the sounds of other people are the overview specified in values and attitudes learning of cognitive theory. Kids read and listen historical stories, myths, legens and stories of other people lifes and think about these people or characters of which they choose. According to that opinion, the moral power of a story and history is a general way in transmission of traditional values to the children (NCHS, 1994). Giving place to the discussion after the story provides a child to acquire new skills about what is right and wrong. According to Marianne Neifert, there are individual differences in the development of values and it can be summarized in general as follows:
- 11- 18 months: Showing kindness to others, not harming to animals, not biting the family members.
- 18 months- 2 years: Using the words of courtesy such as ''Please'', ''Thank you'' , expressing their feelings, showing empathy to other people, sharing.
- 3-4 years: Teamwork and learning how to behave according to the rules
- 4-6 years: Understanding to be reasonable, being engaged in moral conversations, knowing the falsity of lying.
- 6-8 years: Knowing the responsibility for self behaviors (Slater, 2003 akt. Uyanık Balat and &Balaban Dağal, 2011: 18).
Accoding to Çağlar (2003), pre-school children is about "to assume, to be respected, learn, explore, be free, be happy and to trust" and there are some expectations as well as social life. Pre-school children, the developmental characteristics required from those expectations "with experiential meaning" that "making-live the" learn and become a part of their personality can bring. Therefore, when teaching children certain values, that value is created environments where the application can be active, positive role models should be presented. Some related to values education in early childhood education programs have been developed. The most widely accepted of the "Human Values Education Program" and "Living Values Education Program" is given below. "Human Values Education Program" in the UK, prepared by John Auton, in Istanbul Unrequited Service was translated into Turkish by the Foundation of the same name is given to the program. Program for children in the age group 10-14 new games, activities, stories and songs are added (Dilmaç, 2002: 7). Tillman and Hsu (2000) "Living Values Education Program" of the values, personal and social values fundamental to the development of the ten two values (cooperation, freedom, happiness, honesty, humility, love, peace, respect, responsibility, simplicity, tolerance union) that are formed. In addition, this training program, children and young people to discover and develop the values for educators who want to help, offers a variety of activities (Uyanık Balat, 2012: 11). According to the Living Values Education Program for young children who value education generally focuses on the following topics:
• Respect for self and others, cooperation and development aid, conflict resolution skills,
• Universal Declaration of Children's Rights that are necessary to reveal the potential of the children of the totality of universal values into practice, the
• Toys in the movies and on television screens through the promotion of the role of common cultural violence
• The love of nature and respect for the environment,
• Creativity through the mobilization of a child's dream world,
• Children's secular learning and mental (spiritual) learning to be integrated, multi-lingual or multi-cultural groups often live with the problems of link building will help multicultural creation of programs (UNESCO and Living Values: An Educational Program, 2000).
2006 and 2012 Preschool Education Programme do not include a separete chapter related to the values, though several values are given with acqusitions and indicators, and handled in an integrative way in the whole progaramme. The programme support children’s critical thinking on rights and wrongs, and explaining their thoughts freely. Children’s recognization of the values of the society which they live in is important for adopting universal and social values, and grow as individuals having awarenes of responsiblity.When 2002, 2006 and 2012 Preschool Education Programmes are examined, it is seen that pupose-acqusition with acqusition and indicators are placed in the aim of giving children a number of universal values.
2002 Pre-School Education Programme in the field of social and emotional development objectives through acquisitions; "Respect, courtesy, confidence, cooperation, empathy, responsibility and justice"; In the area of self-care "cleaning" value given to the 2006 goal in Preschool Education Program, through acquisitions; social emotional development in the field of "sharing, self-control, responsibility, respect, kindness, tolerance, sharing, and aesthetics" and in self-care skills "self-regulation cleaning with" value given to be seen. Pre-school Education in 2012 Programı'ndais through acquisition and display; social emotional development in the area of "justice, self-control, tolerance, friendship, responsibility, love, respect, courtesy, aesthetics and self-confidence" in their values and self-care skills "self-regulation cleaning with" value given to be seen.
MEASUREMENT AND EVALUATİON
Evalution is a process that children's education, classroom climate that allows you to have information about the educator, where data is collected, synthesized and interpreted (Epstein, Schweinhart, DeBruin-Parecki and Robin, 2004: 2). In preschool educational evaluation; children's development, learning, health, academic progress, the interests and needs are determined (Morrison, 2004). Assessment of children of all high quality early childhood education programs is vital and necessary element. Assessment of the child's development is extremely important for the understanding and support. In addition to this, assess the effectiveness of the program and the educational needs of children is of great importance in determining the assessment. However, evaluation, and they learn their child's daily activities should have criteria donor (Epstein, Schweinhart, DeBruin-Parecki ve Robin, 2004: 2). Identify and education in pre-school children carried out in order to plan large and quite comprehensive measurement and evaluation process. A data collection process requires decisions to be taken at the same time as the measurement and evaluation of the person who is mentally product. In other words, the pre-assessment is an action that occurs only on paper, and the assessor's knowledge, awareness and includes subjectivity (Bentzen, 2005). Assessment of children's behavior intended to gain through the level at which they have won, they were hard to win or do not win the causes of behavior are laid out.
In short, the purpose of assessment in preschool education;
- Better acquainted with the child,
- Program to determine eligibility to children and
- Teachers during the implementation of the program is to determine the success (Akt: Morrison, 2004; Sapsağlam, 2013).
In the assessment of the children, evaluation and assessment of the purpose of the group will be made according to the characteristics of different approaches that are used. Formal evaluation approaches (standardized tests) and informal (alternative approaches) can be divided into two. The first objective is usually to follow the development and learning of children and families in the evaluation of alternative assessment methods for communication are used (McAfee & Leong, 2012). Evaluation approaches, "formal evaluation approaches" and "informal assessment approaches" are divided into two. Formal assessment tools typically include standard tests.
A child's performance on standardized tests test the performance of other children with similar features are able to compare data. In early childhood education, standardized tests are used in four types: readiness tests, achievement tests, developmental screening tests and diagnostic tests (McAfee & Leong, 2012). Formal assessment approach as an alternative to pre-school children is another approach used to assess the "informal assessment approaches".
Informal assessment approaches are the most widely known;
- performance evaluation,
- authentic assessment,
- dynamic assessment,
- game-based assessment,
- portfolio assessment may be specified. (McAfee & Leong, 2012).
In the assessment of the children, evaluation and assessment of the purpose of the group will be made according to the characteristics of different approaches that are used. Evaluation approaches "standardized tests" consisting of formal (standardized tests) and performance assessment, authentic assessment, dynamic assessment, game-based assessment, observation, teacher evaluation, anecdotal records, development of checklists, progress reports, parent ratings and portfolio assessment "to such concepts which consists of "informal (alternative) approaches can be divided into two (McAfee & Leong, 2012); Epstein, Schweinhart, DeBruin-Parecki and Robin, 2004: 6-7; Bentzen, 2005; MEB, 2013). Here in Turkey, and the value used for pre-school education for value measurement tools used are given below.
Value Scales in Preschool Period (Observation Forms)
The Value Scales used for Preschool Period in Turkey
1) (Pre School Children’s Conceptions of Moral and Social Rules)
Pre School Children’s Conceptions of Moral and Social Rules developed by Smetana (1981) aims to review pre-school children's understanding of the traditional rules of morality and social (Smetana, 1981: 1333). The scale was rearranged by Seçer and Sarı (2006) for Turkish children. Scale consists of figures that are to determine social norms and moral rules. Scale;
• 5 pictures showing the violation of moral rules;
Figure 1: A boy shoots to the other.
Figure 2: A child does not want to share teddy bear.
Figure 3: A child is pushing other children
Figure 4: A boy throws water to the other.
Figure 5: A boy is forcibly other child's diamonds.
• 5 pictures showing the violation of social rules;
Figure 1: A child does not participate in the game
Figure 2: A children's does not sit in the desired location in story time.
Figure 3: A child does not to throw the shells after eating the apple, to the right place.
Figure 4: A child does not put toys in the right place
Figure 5: A boy does not hang his coat to the right place, throws it to the ground.
These figures consist of a total of 10 photos. In the validity process of the scale, 'content validity' and 'face validity ‘ were searched.
How the character education is applied in the world?
Character education in the United States has become the fastest growing school reform. Research conducted recently in the United States schools, character education in schools included in the restructuring program is revealed. In the majority of U.S. states have laws in promoting character education; for 37 states to encourage the development of character education are federal funds (Edgington, 2002, p.113).
Values abroad to teach character education at the beginning of the period of compulsory education under the name , ie, starting from kindergarten , in a systematic manner will continue in the program and developed many programs are implemented. This program advocates / supporters of schools is insufficient to raising good people ; hence the necessity of specific programs for character education advocate . (Uyanık Balat and Balaban Dağal, 2011: 31). Some of these programs are (Balat, 2004, s.20);
- Moral Values for Individual Development Guide ( AEGIS )
- Child Development Project:
- Personality Training Curriculum (Character Education Institute )
- Social Attention ( Community of Caring ) :
- Required Core Project (Project Essential )
- Ethics Curriculum for Kids
- Hyde School
- Giraffe ( Giraffe ) Program
- Character Lessons ( Jafferson Center For Character Education)
- City Montessori School
- Lions -Quest program
- Living Values Education Programme ( Living Values Education Program ) :
According to the Living Values Education Program for young children who value education generally focuses on the following topics :
- Respect for self and others, cooperation and development aid , conflict resolution skills,
- Universal Declaration of Children's Rights that are necessary to reveal the potential of the children of the totality of universal values into practice , the
- Toys in the movies and on television screens through the promotion of the role of common cultural violence ,
- The love of nature and respect for the environment ,
- Creativity through the mobilization of a child's dream world ,
- Child 's secular learning and mental (spiritual ) learning to be integrated, multi-lingual or multi-cultural groups often live with the problems of link building will help multicultural creation of programs (UNESCO and Living Values : An Educational Program, 2000).
The Role Of Teachers In Value Educatıon
Many aspects of children 's pre-school years in preschool , family modeled after the children's teachers are the most important persons. Said in class , engaged, working and discussing teachers in the classroom, teaching values are part of the undeniable . During the event , teachers, students model their behavior not ; reflects its values . Therefore, by students of the teacher that what you find important , what you find valuable and self-esteem is known. In other words, teachers are only having issues with teaching ; reflects the character and personality of the students (Akbaş, 2009; akt. Uyanık Balat vd. , 2012: 29). The studies show that teachers take an active role in the transfer of value (Kurtdede Fidan, 2009; LİCKONA, 1997; Öztürk samur, 2011). Being a model of an appropriate behaviors in the classroom environment and / or with the use of fair value education programs , students can learn many universal value .
Lickon (1997) listed the class components that specified the role of the teacher in terms of character education:
• Child-care providers, moral model and mentor teachers who: wants to give children an effective character education, teachers, students should give importance to the relationship between. The teacher relationships with students in terms of creating moral influence should be used three ways. These 'effective for children and to help them value by a saw; morally students to create a model; development of students' moral development and character to assume the role of mentor.
• The same class of students sharing among each other thinks and related to each other to create communities : Teacher in classroom respectful to one another and tolerant group consists of ensuring the case of students , the values in the classroom experience and learning will have the opportunity .
• Moral Discipline: Character education as an important concept in the discipline in students; self-control, and being respectful to others, such as associating certain moral behaviors should be developed .
• Democratic Classroom Environment Creation: character development, great influence in the democratic environment of the students of the class a better place to be take responsibility for the classroom environment of peace for the decision to be made to contribute to the process of ensuring the inclusion is provided by . In creating a democratic classroom environment; class meetings, editing, and interacting face to face meetings are effective in the debate.
• The curriculum through the teaching of values: the values in the program are many facilities for teaching. Role of the teacher, the course which would give values is thinking ahead.
• Collaborative learning: continuous application which allows a collaborative learning process, students' social and moral development is to make a positive impact on.
• Craft conscience: a moral and ethical character education, learning and academic literature often taught as separate from each other, although the area; academic work and academic learning has a moral understanding. Business, which contribute to human society; we have developed self-discipline and self-esteem is one of the most basic ways. In other words, the performance of the person doing his job, is a sign of character.
According to TOM GREEN, the craft conscience is being ashamed of a work that has been made badly or its a job satisfaction.
• Moral Reflection: Morally, being careful not worth knowing, others point of view to understand-empathy, moral thinking, moral decisions delicate act, morally self-knowledge and moral self-critical capacity characters such as the cognitive aspects of characteristics that make up the development puts emphasis on.
• Teaching Conflict Resolution: Two reasons, one of the most important parts of character education to the students how to resolve conflicts without using them and it is difficult to teach.
For this reason
a) clearly non-specific conflicts, class erodes the moral community,
b) without conflict resolution skills, students in the current and future personal relationships can be morally deficient; violence at school and in the community can participate in the conflict resolution skills can be taught in the classroom there are many techniques.
Heathwood Hall Episcopal school located in South Carolina in the case of conflicts in a kindergarten teacher used to give as an example the following two methods can be effective; a) lived a clash of two children in the classroom, teacher immediately stops the event and uses this conflict as a learning moment. For this purpose two different students from class to class before the call to play a role and has played the role of a positive solution to the conflict. Following suggestions from the entire class was asked.
children that experienced a conflict were called in order to play a positive solution that they saw a moment ago (p. 66-76). According to Nucci (1987), there are five basic educational practices that are in accordance with the guidance in moral education. These are;
• Moral education should focus on justice and human welfare.
• Effective moral education programs, a special program or provided separately rather than as a unit, are integrated into the curriculum.
• Students in the models they use slightly different moral level and on a moral dilemma, the best solution when they are free to join the discussion of morality, they support moral development.
• Cooperative target structures increase both moral and academic development.( Auxiliary target structures increase both moral and academic growth value).Robust, flexible and fair rules of classroom management and practices contribute to moral development of students.
• Teachers should respond to harmful or unfair consequences instead of responding violated rules or unfulfilled social expectations (p. 90).
CHARACTER EDUCATİON PROGRAMMES
Although there are many character education programs all around the world, it will be mentioned most common ones which are related to preschoolers’ education in this chapter.
Character Education Institute
This program focuses on teaching children 12 global values which are honor, courage, belief, honesty, truthfulness, kindness, generosity, helpfulness, faith, respect, freedom, equality. 11 units are placed in the program from preschool to 9. grades. In the implementation of this program, discussion, role taking, small groups and asking questionnaire are used as techniques. The most highlighted technique is discussion. The role of the teacher is starting discussion and directing students during discussion if necessary. There is not a detailed teaching or/and learning models in this program. Instead of a detailed model, the model noticed that there re 3 important components. These components are knowledge, (awaressness, self consciousness, taking decision), emotion (conscious, respect, compassion, empathy) and action (good habits, behaviors, tenacity)
Developmental Studies Center 1996-Hewlett Foundation
Child development project helps schools to become an interest community. In these community groups children’s development of moral, social and intellectual are placed in their school lives children learn and feel that they develop. This project focused on 4 basic values:
2)respect and interest for others
This program was developed as a character education program for students from kindergarten to 12. grades. It was aimed to teach the values of courage, interest and responsibility. The program is based on the idea that people take stories as guidance in each culture. People who spend effort for goodness of their society are resembled as giraffes. In this program, more than 800 stories of these giraffes are assembled in a story bank. These stories are used in teaching values. In this program, directives which are given by adults are rejected. Teaching method constitutes 3 steps. These steps are read the story, explain the story and create the story.
Project Essential, Teel Institude
The aim of this program is teaching young children to key behaviors, skills, ideas and concepts which give them a chance to understand their own values. According to this project, valuing herself/himself is gained instead of giving from others.
Lions-Quest Program to teach children important life and citizenship skills in an environment which includes educators, other members of society and families. This is a curriculum involves children from kindergarten to 5 grade. This program aims to teach children 4 basic behaviors like self-discipline, responsibility, fair behavior and coping skills with others.
Living Values Education Program
This is a comprehensible education program. It includes activities which are related to peace, respect, love, cooperation, happiness, honesty, amiableness, simplicity, indulgence. This program also includes special materials for children who are affected from wars or earthquakes. Living education program focuses on some topics for small kids. These topics can be ordered as;
*Respect for her/him,
*Respect for others,
*Developing cooperation and helping each other, and conflict solution skills,
*Love of nature and respect for environment,
*Triggering child’s imagination via creativity,
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